Wellhead & X-mas tree or Christmas tree is a wellhead control equipment for testing oil and gas when the oil (gas) well is completed, or a wellhead control device when the oil is used for oil recovery. It consists of tubing and many gates and tee or four-way, directly mounted on the casing head. Only one side of the oil tree with the oil pipeline, called the single wing Christmas tree; The two sides are lined with tubing, known as the double-winged tree. The oil Christmas tree is equipped with oil nozzle (choke nozzle) to control the production of oil and gas by changing the oil nozzle of different diameter. The main components of the Christmas tree are tubing head, tubing hanger, flange and some valves. The oilfield wellhead valves mainly have the oil mouth (throttle), the production wing valve, the paraffin valve, the main valve and the casing valve.
The tubing head is mounted on top of the top casing and is used to support the gravity of the tubing and the annulus between the sealing tubing and the casing. Working pressure of tubing head: 1000, 2000, 3000, 5000, 10000, 15,000, 20000psi. Rated temperature 18 ° C - 121 ° C. The pressure of the pressure of the tubing head is generally chosen as the fracture pressure of the reservoir after completion of the well, and the pressure is matched with the rated work pressure of the tubing.
The tubing hanger is mounted on the oil tubing in the taper seat of the tubing head and provides the sealing device between the tubing and the cone. There are usually conical tubing hanger, the eccentric tubing with cable crossing holes, the self-sealing tubing and the two pipes. The tubing has a BIW cable crossing port, two 1/4in npt hydraulic control line crossings, a 3/8in npt chemical injection port. The tubing hanger has a 4-1/2 ineue thread.
The upper flange is between the tubing head and the tubing four-pass, and the following flange has 1inLP test hole and 1inLP injection hole.
The tubing four-way consists of the paraffin valve, the main valve and the production wing valve, which is the whole body type oil Christmas tree, which is connected to the flange and the top of the wellhead xmas tree cap.
Christmas Tree cap
Tree cap installed on top of the tree paraffin removal, valve is used to provide fast into the tubing from the longitudinal space of the entrance, if steel line, coiled tubing operations, production test, the switch sliding sleeve, loading and unloading of the work, such as the back pressure valve to discharge the tree cap. The bottom of the tree cap is the API flange or thread.
(1) connect the casing in the well, seal the casing ring space, and carry the weight of the casing.
(2) hanging tubing and the tool of the lower well, the weight of all the tubing string in the supporting well, the annular space between the sealing tubing and the casing.
(3) control and adjust the production of oil wells.
(4) ensure the construction of all the underground works, facilitate the construction of the operation of the well and the daily production management such as pressure measurement and wax, etc.
(5) record information of oil pressure and casing pressure.
1. According to the construction design and completion requirements, the oil tree and accessories of the corresponding model shall be extracted.
2. Screw off the top wire of the tubing hanger, put the tubing hanger inside the tubing head, and wrap the sealing rubber of the tubing hanger with a large cloth to prevent the tubing hanger from being damaged.
3. Remove the fillet of flange steel ring groove and steel ring, assemble the upper part of the oil tree, and require the installation specification, flat and handwheel direction, and the connecting flange screw must be close to the Angle.
4. Install the test pressure blind flange in the upper part of the assembly and the lower flange, and tighten the flange to the Angle.
5 In accordance with the requirements of completion of construction design, clear the dirt on the flange slot and rims, elevated assembly tree big cross and nipple (or casing head), to ensure the seal face no damage, packed rims, and connecting flange tightening up diagonally, required to install a right hand wheel in the same direction.
6. In the main body of the oil tree and the main body of the short section (or the casing head), the flange is mounted on the flange, and the flange is attached to the angle.
7. if the shaft is returned to the wellhead, the construction design of the shaft shall be completed, the assembly requirements shall be the same.
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